Tuesday, February 25, 2014

Grid Artists

Piet Mondrian
The black lines are the flattest elements, with depth. The colored forms have the most brush strokes in one direction. Most interesting part is the white forms, which have been painted in some layers, using brush strokes in different directions. Mondrian's paintings of this period came to be increasingly dominated by white space. Mondrian left the Netherlands for Paris in 1912 where Cubism was already articulated. It would influenced him enormously, especially from Picasso's cubism art. 
When he starts to paint, he began to simplify and abstract the colors and shapes that he saw. The rise of Cubism also gave Mondrian a means to segment and reduce objects to their most basic forms.

Paul Klee
Paul Klee used a grid as an organizational format to explore movement, visual weight, and rhythm through the use of color and shape. He alternated hue, value, and intensity describing this contrast as heavy and light. Often Klee developed sequences of contrasting color squares. Vertical and horizontal columns could be organized by a numbering system awarding numerical values to heavy and light colors.
Chuck Close
To create his grid work copies of photos, Close puts a grid on the photo and on the canvas and copies cell by cell. Typically, each square within the grid is filled with roughly executed regions of color which give the cell a perceived 'average' hue which makes sense from a distance. His first tools for this included an airbrush, rags, razor blade, and an eraser mounted on a power drill.

Mondrian was born in Netherlands, the second of his parents' children. He painted grid structure with red ,blue and yellow that are compared with black lines. He's piece is made up of squares that compose shapes in the painting. He has tried to make his own composition through the lines and squares, again and again.

Korean artist, Whan Ki kim's paintings are composed by plenty of dots on characteristic grid. He just put dots whatever he wants and make form through the grid. It looks arbitrary but it has his own rule.

Lee wu fan is a Korean artist who is still alive and having exhibition these days. He painted a color that he choose into the little square that he designed. It has musical movement regularly. Paper colors that he picked is not just white paper but little brownish yellow so that it makes the color not too pop.

Artist research


Ignacio Itturia was born in Montevideo, Uruguay, in 1949. He is a contemporary artist known for his nautical scenes. Itturia’s use of grid system does not always happen in his paintings. When he uses the grid system for his paintings, it reminds me a lot of movie scenes. With sculpture like figures moving differently in each squares is only allowed because of the grid system. Sometimes he would include the grid as part of his painting, which gave me architectural window like impression.


Agnes Martin is one of the depicted famous women artists for using the grid system. The lightly touched pencil lines across the canvas and the colors that often give impressions of being floating off are her signature style. Her use of grid system is development from the Minimalism, especially from Sol Lewitt and the composition is influenced from the ‘all over’-ness from the Abstract Expressionism.

            Nasreen Mohamedi, who have worked with Agnes Martin before was influenced by her grid system. Not only she was influenced by her, but also Paul Klee, who is very well known for his colored squares that depicts his emotions and mood when he listens to music. Mohamedi studies whole different surface studies through combining different imageries in one drawing using lines, which creates dark and rainy mood. She does many other representational works, but line drawings seem to be the most exhibited work of her arts.

Artist research

Sol LeWitt: The Well-Tempered Grid is the first exhibition to focus on the centrality of the grid in LeWitt’s art. The exhibition focuses on LeWitt’s use of the grid as a generative matrix for his artistic production over the span of nearly five decades, from 1960 until his death in 2007. Inspired by his first encounter with the work of photographer Eadweard Muybridge in the late 1950s, LeWitt began experimenting with a loosely structured grid in several large oil paintings of 1960, based on the Muybridge motif of a running man. By 1962 he had simplified his use of this format to exclude figurative elements, and by 1964 he was making his first wall-mounted grid structures. When LeWitt made his first wall drawings in 1968 he used the grid as the underlying structural principle. Thereafter, grids became a pervasive matrix in all of the media in which LeWitt worked--three-dimensional “structures,” drawings and gouaches on paper, photographic cycles, artist’s books, furniture and wall drawings.

Composition No. 10: Pier and Ocean
By the time Modrian was stranded in Holland, He was ready to develop his unique and individual style combining the tenets of the Parisian avant-garde and Theosophy. It is  Holland in the town of Laren that Mondrian developed his characteristic approach to painting, the grid composition.  The grid evolved out of his observation of the ocean and the way the piers jutted out into the water.  His Piers and Ocean series of 1915, became Composition in Line of 1916-17 with “plus” and “minus” lines. The reduction of nature to horizontals and verticals and the monochromatic approach of Cubism marked a turning point of his work.
Gerhard Richter, “1025 Farben” (1974), 254 cm x 254 cm, enamel on canvas

 1025 colors are randomly placed within the grid on the canvas. The painting has a high degree of entropy because you can imagine switching any two colors and it would probably not change the overall experience of the work. In this work, Richter rejects the role as editor in that the number of colors are based on those that are available and their positions are assigned at random. It is interesting to note that when Hirst makes his dot paintings that are superficially similar, Hirst finds it necessary to assign chemical compositions as titles and is comfortable with the narrative that they suggest.

Ad Reinhardt, Abstract Painting, 1960-66, Guggenheim Museum, NY.
   The grid like structure of the painting slowly comes in to focus as the blacks begin to slowly differentiate themselves. For painters like Reinhardt and Martin, form was one way to reject the artist's role as editor and a rigorous simplicity becomes the antidote to technique. It is worth taking a moment to think about why Ad Reinhardt's paintings worked and the problems the paintings solved for him. A square is the same for everyone and a grid from nine squares is the same from any orthogonal direction. It is at once direct, accessible, absolute and infinite. In the black paintings even the grid is almost obliterated by the subtly varying shades of black squares. I don't think that Reinhardt decided to make a painting about squares; it was just that every other painting he made seemed to make was overdone or extraneous. It was not an intellectual decision and he wasn't trying to make a formal statement. It was simply the only solution that worked but to make it work he had to give up a lot of his earlier ideas about what painting was. The black paintings are not about the grid nor are they necessarily about the color black. They are about the experience of Art. Anything else was unnecessary. The grid and the black color are tools but do necessarily reveal anything about his intention. To understand his intention you have to look at the paintings he made. The key was not putting more of himself into the paintings but taking more of himself out, especially because he was always going to be there in the end anyway.

Another Dore study

     Study of a detail of Gustave Dore's The Council Held by Rats (1867)
Micron Pen

Thomas Cole

Monday, February 24, 2014

Chuck Close Video


On the Grid: Artist Research

On the Grid: Artist Research 

Chuck Close
Chuck Close is an American painter that distinctly uses the grid in his art work. His work is portraits that are made through the grid. The grid is used as a structure to expand photographs into large paintings. In his large paintings, there are hundreds of tiny colorful quadrants, that are made of circles, triangles, teardrops, boomerangs, and other assorted shapes. By working with this type of grid, his pieces blur the distinction between painting and photography in a way that had never been done before. 

Robin Rhodes 
Robin Rhodes is a multidisciplinary artist that works with photography, performance, drawing and sculpture to create arrestingly beautiful narratives that are brought to life using materials such as soap, charcoal, chalk and paint. The grid work in Rhodes’ art work is the still frames of his photographs. He makes his art work like it is a movie and you can see the motion through the piece. Rhodes likes to call these pieces “moving images.”

Susan Hefuna 

Susan Hefuna is a mix media artist thats works with drawing, photography, sculpture, installation, video and performance. In her work, she focuses on her heritage which is Egyptian and German. She likes to explores the intersection of location and identity. Her Grids in her art work alludes to the interiority of cityscapes and constellations of her heritage. Most of her work is abstract but she uses the grid to help depict her subject matter. 

Ekaterina Panikanova

Inspired by the metaphor of an oyster that produces a pearl when stimulated by a stress element as small as a sand grain, Ekaterina Panikanova explores the emotional trigger that can evoke childhood images, traumas and experiences that everyone carries around with them all their lives. The drawings recall themes of one’s life, childhood memories and experiences, prompting strong impressions and moods through small yet expressive details. Using black ink, she intensely maps a vivid journey into the subconscious through images and symbols that study, investigate and highlight the most profound and obscure roots of our being. Portraits of people and animals are interchanged with antlers, cakes, rocking horses; all kinds of fascinating objects in fact that evoke long-forgotten childhood memories. Through the various forms and meanings, a beautiful and mystifying new world comes to life, just like the characters and stories we mentally create when reading a book. Through its simplicity and evocative intensity, Ekaterina Panikanova’s ‘Errata Corrige’ creates a striking visual synthesis of drawings that beautifully speculate on our deepest sentiments, recollections and thoughts.source

Grid Artist

Chuck Close used grid patterns in his larger than life portrait paintings. They were teetering on the line of photorealism and had not been seen by any artist before. He paints the portraits by painting individual squares different colors and different colors inside of those squares. This technique causes the colors to blur together and look realistic from afar."Working from a gridded photograph, he builds his images by applying one careful stroke after another in multi-colors or grayscale. He works methodically, starting his loose but regular grid from the left hand corner of the canvas."

Russian artist Ekaterina Panikanova uses a grid system of books and documents as her canvas for her paintings. Panikanova explores the theme of childhood memories, inviting the audience to discover themselves by reading behind the lines of their subconscious. Panikanova attempts to visually rewrite the innermost stories of the human psyche by directly intervening on the pages of open books. Arranging old books, notebooks and prints from different eras into an irregular grid, Panikanova puts together an unconventional oversized canvas of interrupted surfaces. Laid out in groups, the books resemble pieces of a puzzle that appear to be interchangeable yet heavily reliant on one another, very much like the experiences and memories that collectively piece together a lifetime. The outcome is a series of spectacular three-dimensional artworks that shy away from the conventional format of painting, flirting instead, with the set-up of an installation."source

"Artist Esther Stocker has built a disjointed grid of black blocks across the floor, walls and ceiling of Z33 – House for Contemporary Art in Hasselt, Belgium The arrangement of the blocks suggests a grid that's only half visible, leaving the viewer to mentally piece together the remaining elements.'Based on a Grid' is part of Z33's current exhibition 'Mind the System, Find the Gap', in which more than 30 international artists offer their interpretation on the idea of gaps in the system."-source

Grid - Artist examination

Ellen Gallagher uses the grid in a multitude of ways in her work.  Her creative process could begin when she constructs wooden lattices, which she uses simply as a tool that allows her to sit over the canvas and work on top of it.  In some of her paintings, she has glued down penmanship paper to the surface.  She uses this familiar structure to access gesture--whether it be the gesture of handwriting, revisions, or something else entirely.  Also, she has used images from magazine advertisements, revised to fit into her lexicon, and then arranged in the grid format.  Her reasoning for using the grid in this way is in attempt to give the viewer a more spatial experience of the painting rather than a sequential one.  In other works, she uses the full size of advertisement rather than a clipped image, which plays with the way we read the painting.  Taking the grid even further, Gallagher has even explored using film as an investigation of this idea.  She sees the film as being a grid projected in space where you can only see one module at a time.  Each section disappearing as the next appears. 

Jennifer Bartlett uses the grid, in some ways, similar to how Ellen Gallagher does.  Bartlett implements the grid not for aesthetic purposes, but as a method of organization.  The grid becomes a structure where rules are created.  This could result in a complex mathematical exploration or a more narrative representation of a house or a mountain.  The grid is such an integral part of her creative process that it allows her to work in both the realm of representation and abstraction.  

Mark Bradford, however, uses the grid to create an index of an urban environment.  The structure presents itself as a method of organizing this information, just as the artists above took advantage of the grid.  Taking advertisement posters found around the city, he collages and sands into them to alter their appearance, although always bringing back the text.  Text is another aspect of Bradford's work that falls seamlessly in line with the framework of the grid.  Some of his larger paintings resemble maps and make use of an abstracted representation of the grid.                  

Donald judd's working papers

Grid Response Jacob Cruz

Jacob Cruz
Junior Drawing
Matthew Pruden

            Based on my research about art using a “grid”, I have found that Sol Lewitt is one of the most famous for using this technique.  He got started around the 1960s and created “structures” instead of “sculptures.
            Most of Lewitt’s work is two or three-dimensional work.   His works use modular open structures that originate from the cube. This form highly influenced him. After a while, he decides to remove the “skin” and expose the structure. This consisted of twelve equal linear elements connects at eight corners to form a skeletal structure.
            Agnes Martin is another clear pioneer in the “grid” movement. Her works with the grid seems to be a lot more apparent.  Her signature style includes a deep emphasis on straight grid lines and a wide range of light colors.
Her grid paints meant the most to her because she had a specific vision. She wanted to work with the most reductive elements to portray and encourage a vision of flawlessness and to emphasize a sublime reality.
            Dan Flavin is another “grid” enthusiast and uses the form of lines and grid in his works. Unlike the previous artist I stated Dan Flavin uses fluorescent lights to create his sculptures.  His works mostly consist of these fluorescent tubes.  Along with an array of vibrant colors, they are all strategically placed and various angles to give the viewer a visual experience.

            His work is very minimal but very engaging and large in the aspect of an installation.